Over the next few months, we will post the following comprehensive, operational write-ups in the interest of providing helpful insight into the behavior of these specific structures under fire as well as the prioritized truck work that should be carried out on these buildings.
Remember that LOUVEERSS is not prioritized based off of LIP.
We hope this helps make a little more sense of the fireground as you develop your SOGs...
Manufactured Homes (commonly called Mobile Homes, which are earlier versions) are prefabricated off-site and transported in one or more sections for on site assembly. Mobile homes may be single or double-wide and typically range from 8 feet wide or greater to 40 feet or more in length. Federal law (24 CFR 3280) defines a manufactured home as “a dwelling unit of at least 320 square feet in size with a permanent chassis to assure initial and continued transportability of the home.”
All transportable sections of manufactured homes built in the U.S. after June 15, 1976 must contain a certification label on the home indicating it is built in accordance with HUD's Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards.
Areas of concern are the opening below the wood floor hidden by "skirting". Because of this, the floors are often fire weakened and burned out. Sounding and probing while advancing should occur aggressively and often. Firefighters should also be aware of a small truss space that is often present in the overhead.
In short, fires within these types of structures are among some of the most dangerous due to the narrow hallways, high potential for hoarding conditions, burned out floors, combustible wall coverings, limited entry/egress, etc. The nickname "residential flashover trainer" does not do these fires justice...
**This description of mobile / manufactured home should not be confused with a MODULAR HOME.
Truck company work prioritized off L.I.P. (Life Safety, Incident Stabilization, Property Conservation) for these specific types of buildings:
1. Forcible Entry 2. Search 3. Forcible Egress = window cut downs! 4. Ventilation (Horizontally) 5. Utilities 6. Ladders to higher than normal windows if "cut
downs" werent completed. 7. Overhaul 8. Salvage
Geographic Areas with prioritized work in memory aid form:
**Forcible entry/egress should include “window cut-downs” e.g., creating large enough openings for interior companies to escape rapidly.
***VES – While considered an outside truck operation, the nature of the function will lead to tasks within the “Inside” truck plan.
Truckwork considerations for Mobile and Manufactured Homes are as follows:
LADDERS: ￼1. Recognize potential for ladders to be thrown to taller windows for rapid FF egress. Manufactured homes will be on a mobile frame elevated off the ground. Window sills are several feet higher than normal. • Consider A-frame ladders that are left closed. 2. Consider ground ladders for elevated outside work, i.e. bar removal from taller windows.
OVERHAUL: 1. Identify suspected point(s) of origin and open all areas involved to expose any hidden fire. Be mindful of spaces below the floor, above the ceiling, walls, window casements and door frames. 2. Recognize potential for weakened floors and the area below.
UTILITIES: 1. Turn off utilities to the structure (gas and power). 2. Consider possibility of power theft and confirm with interior crew power is secured.
VENTILATION: Communication with hose team is critical to maintain coordination. Support the "push"... 1. Horizontally via a window in the fire room.
a) Arbitrary window breaking or “guessing” at which window to take is unacceptable prior to the application of water. b) Size up smoke during 360 and use the TIC to aid in this decision. c) Ensure hose team is ready to make entry prior to “taking the glass”. This will limit fire growth while providing horizontal exhaust for the hose team to push steam and fire gases out of and away from interior companies. d) Consider turning walls or windows into large openings for points of rapid egress and larger vent port.
2. Vertical Ventilation is not advised on these types of structures.
￼￼￼ENTRY / EGRESS FORCIBLY: 1. Confirm primary entrance/egress is unobstructed for interior crews. 2. Complete 360 and soften secondary egresses while maintaining door control. 3. Consider turning walls or windows into large openings for points of rapid egress and larger vent port. 4. Remove security bars from windows as needed while maintaining integrity of windows.
SEARCH & RESCUE: 1. Ask escaping occupants or bystanders where victims may most likely be found. 2. Size up the structure and determine location of fire, floor stability*, bedrooms, access/egress points, and potential victims. 3. Initiate primary search through the appropriate entrance taking into consideration fire conditions and potential location(s) of victims i.e., common pathways. 4. Consider VES due to fire conditions and floor stability. a) Consider turning walls and windows into larger openings for rapid search and victim removal. *Expose underside of home by quickly removing the skirting surrounding the trailer upon approach.
SALVAGE: 1. Ask occupants which items are salvage priorities and locations of items, meds, documents, family heirlooms, TVs, etc. Be aggressive!! 2. Make determination to remove from the structure or cover in place. 3. Close doors to keep contaminants out of non-affected rooms. 4. Use floor runners and chutes where practical.